## LispKit Vector

Vectors are heterogeneous data structures whose elements are indexed by a range of integers. A vector typically occupies less space than a list of the same length, and a randomly chosen element can be accessed in constant time vs. linear time for lists.

The *length* of a vector is the number of elements that it contains. This number is a non-negative integer that is fixed when the vector is created. The valid indexes of a vector are the exact, non-negative integers less than the length of the vector. The first element in a vector is indexed by zero, and the last element is indexed by one less than the length of the vector.

Two vectors are `equal?`

if they have the same length, and if the values in corresponding slots of the vectors are `equal?`

.

A vector can be *mutable* or *immutable*. Trying to change the state of an *immutable vector*, e.g. via `vector-set!`

will result in an error being raised.

Vectors are written using the notation `#(obj ...)`

. For example, a vector of length 3 containing the number zero in element 0, the list (1 2 3 4) in element 1, and the string "Lisp" in element 2 can be written as follows: `#(0 (1 2 3 4) "Lisp")`

.

Vector constants are self-evaluating, so they do not need to be quoted in programs. Vector constants, i.e. vectors created with a vector literal, are *immutable*.

LispKit also supports *growable vectors* via library `(lispkit gvector)`

. As opposed to regular vectors, a growable vector does not have a fixed size and supports adding and removing elements. While a growable vector does not satisfay the `vector?`

predicate, this library also accepts growable vectors as parameters whenever a vector is expected. Use predicate `mutable-vector?`

for determining whether a vector is either a regular mutable vector or a growable vector.

### Predicates

**(vector? obj)** [procedure]

Returns `#t`

if *obj* is a regular vector; otherwise returns `#f`

. This function returns `#f`

for growable vectors; see library `(lispkit gvector)`

.

**(mutable-vector? obj)** [procedure]

Returns `#t`

if *obj* is either a mutable regular vector or a growable vector (see library `(lispkit gvector)`

); otherwise returns `#f`

.

**(immutable-vector? obj)** [procedure]

Returns `#t`

if *obj* is an immutable vector; otherwise returns `#f`

.

**(vector= eql vector ...)** [procedure]

Procedure `vector=`

is a generic comparator for vectors. Vectors *a* and *b* are considered equal by `vector=`

if their lengths are the same, and for each respective elements *ai* and *bi*, `(eql ai bi)`

evaluates to true. *eql* is always applied to two arguments.

If there are only zero or one vector argument, `#t`

is automatically returned. The dynamic order in which comparisons of elements and of vectors are performed is unspecified.

```
(vector= eq? #(a b c d) #(a b c d)) ⇒ #t
(vector= eq? #(a b c d) #(a b d c)) ⇒ #f
(vector= = #(1 2 3 4 5) #(1 2 3 4)) ⇒ #f
(vector= = #(1 2 3 4) #(1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0)) ⇒ #t
(vector= eq?) ⇒ #t
(vector= eq? '#(a)) ⇒ #t
```

### Constructors

**(make-vector k)** [procedure]

**(make-vector**

*k fill*)Returns a newly allocated vector of *k* elements. If a second argument is given, then each element is initialized to *fill*. Otherwise the initial contents of each element is unspecified.

**(vector obj ...)** [procedure]

Returns a newly allocated mutable vector whose elements contain
the given arguments. It is analogous to `list`

.

```
(vector ’a ’b ’c) ⇒ #(a b c)
```

**(immutable-vector obj ...)** [procedure]

Returns a newly allocated immutable vector whose elements contain the given arguments in the given order.

**(list->vector list)** [procedure]

The `list->vector`

procedure returns a newly created mutable vector initialized to the elements of the list *list* in the order of the list.

```
(list->vector ’(a b c)) ⇒ #(a b c)
```

**(list->immutable-vector list)** [procedure]

The `list->vector`

procedure returns a newly created immutable vector initialized to the elements of the list *list* in the order of the list.

**(string->vector str)** [procedure]

**(string->vector**

*str start*)**(string->vector**

*str start end*)The `string->vector`

procedure returns a newly created mutable vector initialized to the elements of the string *str* between *start* and *end* (i.e. including all characters from index *start* to index *end*-1).

```
(string->vector "ABC") ⇒ #(#\A #\B #\C)
```

**(vector-copy vector)** [procedure]

**(vector-copy**

*vector mutable*)**(vector-copy**

*vector start*)**(vector-copy**

*vector start end*)**(vector-copy**

*vector start end mutable*)Returns a newly allocated copy of the elements of the given vector between *start* and *end*, but excluding the element at index *end*. The elements of the new vector are the same (in the sense of `eqv?`

) as the elements of the old.

*mutable* is a boolean argument. If it is set to `#f`

, an immutable copy of *vector* will be created. The type of the second argument of `vector-copy`

is used to disambiguate between the second and third version of the function. An exact integer will always be interpreted as *start*, a boolean value will always be interpreted as *mutable*.

```
(define a #(1 8 2 8)) ; a may be immutable
(define b (vector-copy a)) ; creates a mutable copy of a
(vector-set! b 0 3) ; b is mutable
b ⇒ #(3 8 2 8)
(define c (vector-copy a #f)) ; creates an immutable copy of a
(vector-set! c 0 3) ⇒ error ; error, since c is immutable
(define d (vector-copy b 1 3))
d ⇒ #(8 2)
```

**(vector-append vector ...)** [procedure]

Returns a newly allocated mutable vector whose elements are the concatenation of the elements of the given vectors.

```
(vector-append #(a b c) #(d e f)) ⇒ #(a b c d e f)
```

**(vector-concatenate vector xs)** [procedure]

Returns a newly allocated mutable vector whose elements are the concatenation of the elements of the vectors in *xs*. *xs* is a proper list of vectors.

```
(vector-concatenate '(#(a b c) #(d) #(e f))) ⇒ #(a b c d e f)
```

**(vector-map f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

Constructs a new mutable vector of the shortest size of the vector arguments *vector1*, *vector2*, etc. Each element at index *i* of the new vector is mapped from the old vectors by `(f (vector-ref vector1 i) (vector-ref vector2 i) ...)`

. The dynamic order of the application of f is unspecified.

```
(vector-map + #(1 2 3 4 5) #(10 20 30 40)) ⇒ #(11 22 33 44)
```

**(vector-map/index f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

Constructs a new mutable vector of the shortest size of the vector arguments *vector1*, *vector2*, etc. Each element at index *i* of the new vector is mapped from the old vectors by `(f i (vector-ref vector1 i) (vector-ref vector2 i) ...)`

. The dynamic order of the application of f is unspecified.

```
(vector-map/index (lambda (i x y) (cons i (+ x y))) #(1 2 3) #(10 20 30))
⇒ #((0 . 11) (1 . 22) (2 . 33))
```

**(vector-sort pred vector)** [procedure]

**(vector-sort**

*pred vector start*)**(vector-sort**

*pred vector start end*)Procedure `vector-sort`

returns a new vector containing the elements of *vector* in sorted order using *pred* as the "less than" predicate. If *start* and *end* are given, they indicate the sub-vector that should be sorted.

```
(vector-sort < (vector 7 4 9 1 2 8 5))
⇒ #(1 2 4 5 7 8 9)
```

### Iterating over vectors

**(vector-for-each f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

`vector-for-each`

implements a simple vector iterator: it applies *f* to the corresponding list of parallel elements from *vector1 vector2 ...* in the range *[0, length)*, where *length* is the length of the smallest vector argument passed. In contrast with `vector-map`

, *f* is reliably applied to each subsequent element, starting at index 0, in the vectors.

```
(vector-for-each (lambda (x) (display x) (newline))
#("foo" "bar" "baz" "quux" "zot"))
⇒
foo
bar
baz
quux
zot
```

**(vector-for-each/index f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

`vector-for-each/index`

implements a simple vector iterator: it applies *f* to the index *i* and the corresponding list of parallel elements from *vector1 vector2 ...* in the range *[0, length)*, where *length* is the length of the smallest vector argument passed. The only difference to `vector-for-each`

is that `vector-for-each/index`

always passes the current index as the first argument of *f* in addition to the elements from the vectors *vector1 vector2 ...*.

```
(vector-for-each/index
(lambda (i x) (display i)(display ": ")(display x)(newline))
#("foo" "bar" "baz" "quux" "zot"))
⇒
0: foo
1: bar
2: baz
3: quux
4: zot
```

### Managing vector state

**(vector-length vector)** [procedure]

Returns the number of elements in *vector* as an exact integer.

**(vector-ref vector k)** [procedure]

The `vector-ref`

procedure returns the contents of element *k* of *vector*. It is an error if *k* is not a valid index of *vector*.

```
(vector-ref ’#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21) 5) ⇒ 8
(vector-ref ’#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21) (exact (round (* 2 (acos -1))))) ⇒ 13
```

**(vector-set! vector k obj)** [procedure]

The `vector-set!`

procedure stores *obj* in element *k* of *vector*.
It is an error if *k* is not a valid index of *vector*.

```
(let ((vec (vector 0 '(2 2 2 2) "Anna")))
(vector-set! vec 1 '("Sue" "Sue"))
vec)
⇒ #(0 ("Sue" "Sue") "Anna")
(vector-set! '#(0 1 2) 1 "doe")
⇒ error ;; constant/immutable vector
```

**(vector-swap! vector j k)** [procedure]

The `vector-swap!`

procedure swaps the element *j* of *vector* with the element *k* of *vector*.

### Destructive vector operations

Procedures which operate only on a part of a vector specify the applicable range in terms of an index interval [*start*; *end*[; i.e. the *end* index is always exclusive.

**(vector-copy! to at from)** [procedure]

**(vector-copy!**

*to at from start*)**(vector-copy!**

*to at from start end*)Copies the elements of vector *from* between *start* and *end* to vector *to*, starting at *at*. The order in which elements are copied is unspecified, except that if the source and destination overlap, copying takes place as if the source is first copied into a temporary vector and then into the destination. *start* defaults to 0 and *end* defaults to the length of *vector*.

It is an error if *at* is less than zero or greater than the length of *to*. It is also an error if `(- (vector-length to) at)`

is less than `(- end start)`

.

```
(define a (vector 1 2 3 4 5))
(define b (vector 10 20 30 40 50)) (vector-copy! b 1 a 0 2)
b ⇒ #(10 1 2 40 50)
```

**(vector-fill! vector fill)** [procedure]

**(vector-fill!**

*vector fill start*)**(vector-fill!**

*vector fill start end*)The `vector-fill!`

procedure stores *fill* in the elements of *vector* between *start* and *end*. *start* defaults to 0 and *end* defaults to the length of *vector*.

```
(define a (vector 1 2 3 4 5))
(vector-fill! a ’smash 2 4)
a ⇒ #(1 2 smash smash 5)
```

**(vector-reverse! vector)** [procedure]

**(vector-reverse!**

*vector start*)**(vector-reverse!**

*vector start end*)Procedure `vector-reverse!`

destructively reverses the contents of *vector* between *start* and *end*. *start* defaults to 0 and *end* defaults to the length of *vector*.

```
(define a (vector 1 2 3 4 5))
(vector-reverse! a)
a ⇒ #(5 4 3 2 1)
```

**(vector-sort! pred vector)** [procedure]

**(vector-sort!**

*pred vector start*)**(vector-sort!**

*pred vector start end*)Procedure `vector-sort!`

destructively sorts the elements of *vector* using the "less than" predicate *pred* between the indices *start* and *end*. Default for *start* is 0, for *end* it is the length of the vector.

```
(define a (vector 7 4 9 1 2 8 5))
(vector-sort! < a)
a ⇒ #(1 2 4 5 7 8 9)
```

**(vector-map! f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

Similar to `vector-map`

which maps the various elements into a new vector via function *f*, procedure `vector-map!`

destructively inserts the mapped elements into *vector1*. The dynamic order in which *f* gets applied to the elements is unspecified.

```
(define a (vector 1 2 3 4))
(vector-map! + a #(10 20 30))
a ⇒ #(11 22 33 4)
```

**(vector-map/index! f vector1 vector2 ...)** [procedure]

Similar to `vector-map/index`

which maps the various elements together with their index into a new vector via function *f*, procedure `vector-map/index!`

destructively inserts the mapped elements into *vector1*. The dynamic order in which *f* gets applied to the elements is unspecified.

```
(define a (vector 1 2 3 4))
(vector-map/index! (lambda (i x y) (cons i (+ x y))) a #(10 20 30))
a ⇒ #((0 . 11) (1 . 22) (2 . 33) 4)
```

### Converting vectors

**(vector->list vector)** [procedure]

**(vector->list**

*vector start*)**(vector->list**

*vector start end*)The `vector->list`

procedure returns a newly allocated list of the objects contained in the elements of *vector* between *start* and *end* in the same order line in *vector*.

```
(vector->list ’#(dah dah didah)) ⇒ (dah dah didah)
(vector->list ’#(dah dah didah) 1 2) ⇒ (dah)
```

**(vector->string vector)** [procedure]

**(vector->string**

*vector start*)**(vector->string**

*vector start end*)The `vector->string`

procedure returns a newly allocated string of the objects contained in the elements of *vector* between *start* and *end*. This procedure preserves the order of the characters. It is an error if any element of vector between *start* and *end* is not a character.

```
(vector->string #(#\1 #\2 #\3) ⇒ "123"
```